International Journal of Primary and Critical Care https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc <p><img style="float: left; padding-right: 10px; width: 300px; height: 370px;" src="http://pcc.a2zjournals.com/public/site/images/editor/coverpage-pcc.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="370" /></p> <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Primary and Critical Care (PCC)</strong> is a scholarly, peer-reviewed, and fully refereed <strong>open access </strong>online international research journal <span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">started in </span><strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">2023</strong><span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">,</span> published <strong>twice a year</strong> in the <strong>English language</strong>, provides an international forum for the publication and dissemination of theoretical and practice-oriented papers, dealing with various medical problems and issues. <strong>PCC</strong> invites all sorts of research on primary care and various specialties of <strong>Medical Science</strong>. The purpose of this journal is to publish original articles on significant work in basic and critical care medicine, practices, therapy, technology, methodology and treatments.<strong> PCC</strong> aims to improve the care of critically ill patients by acquiring, discussing, distributing, and promoting evidence-based information relevant to intensivists. The aim of <strong>PCC</strong> is to provide a comprehensive overview of the basic and intensive care field. <strong>PCC</strong> welcomes regular papers, short papers, review articles, etc. The journal reviews papers using <strong>double-blind peer-review</strong> process within three-six weeks of submission and publishes accepted articles online immediately upon receiving the final versions. All the papers in the journal are freely accessible as <strong>online full-text content</strong> and permanent worldwide web link. The article will be indexed and available in major academic international databases. <strong>PCC</strong> welcomes you to submit your research for possible publication in <strong>PCC</strong> through our online submission system. <strong>ISSN: 2584-2188 (E)</strong></p> en-US pcc.a2zeditor@gmail.com (Dr. Pawan Singh) manager@a2zjournals.com (Ms Jyoti Singh) Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Survey on Occurrence of Hepatitis: A Case Study https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/6 <p><em>Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) may reactivate. The patients who were found in accordance with Egyptian guidelines from February 2019 to December 2019. On the other hand, it was seen that those patients had just contracted HBV. Results: Of all participants, 51% of them were women and 49% of them were men above the age of 18. The results of four weeks, and the conclusion of the 12-week treatment period all showed improvement, with the exception of serum albumin, and this difference was highly statistically significant. 34 individuals with Co-infections with and results l were present at the start of the investigation. Reactivation was found in 6 individuals after 1 month of DAA treatment. Conclusion: In order to identify new infection or the reactivation of a preexisting infection during or after DAA medication, screening for HBV infection is necessary. </em></p> Shivam Shekhar Copyright (c) 2023 Shivam Shekhar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/6 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dengue Fever: A Case Study https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/10 <p><em>Dengue is a pandemic that is brought on by the Dengue Virus (DENV), which is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus. Dengue is also brought on by the bite of species in the Aedes family. Dengue, which is caused by the Dengue Virus, is the most common arboviral illness in the world and is a member of the Flaviviridae family. I present a study based on Dengue as a pandemic which outbreak on City Hospital of Delhi in the year 2010. Examining the clinical characteristics of dengue posi-tive cases, the prevalence of dengue diagnosis among patients with suspected dengue, and the effects of the aforemen-tioned on the environment and infectious illnesses. 4480 blood samples from clinically probable dengue fever patients were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) to find dengue virus-specific IgM antibody protection. On 55 samples of C6/36 cell monolayers, virus isolation was carried out. The patient's application or the doctor might provide medical and public information about the patient. Results: Of the 4,480 blood samples tested, 1,800 blood samples (40.17%) were de-tected to be positive for the DENV with particular antibodies known as IgM antibodies. The most common group of single species of microorganism detected was DENV type 2. The conditions which were profusely detected were thrombocytopenia in which the blood platelet count observed is low and along with this Myalgia was also detected in which pain in the muscles is observed. In 32.4% and 17.9% of the 1,800-dengue fever IgM positive patients, respectively, low platelet count (thrombo-cytopenia) and muscle discomfort (myalgia) were noted. Together, these conditions accounted for 3% of the cases. Addition-ally, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which affects 10.3% of the 1,800 persons, has a fatality rate of 0.08%. Conclusions: Increased reporting due to changes in disease outbreaks, unprecedented rainfall, major infrastructure developments and improved medical facilities contributed to the shortage of dengue patients in 2010.</em></p> Ananyaa Srivastava Copyright (c) 2023 Ananyaa Srivastava https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/10 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Typhoid Fever: An Emerging Global Threat https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/23 <p><em>Typhoid fever, a formidable infectious disease, is caused primarily by the cunning bacterium known as Salmonella Typhi. This stealthy pathogen often finds its way into our bodies through tainted food and water, setting the stage for a grave public health challenge. Once inside, the Salmonella Typhi bacteria embarks on a dangerous journey, infiltrating our bloodstream and unleashing a host of distressing symptoms, with potentially lifethreatening consequences. In this paper, we delve into the everevolving world of typhoid fever, paying close attention to how urbanization and climate change are transforming the landscape and amplifying its worldwide reach. Understanding the titer value allows for the full and accurate analysis of a Widal test. To acquire the typhoid test report, a good diagnosis requiring titers in the range of 1:20, 1:40, 1:60, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:200 is made. </em></p> Sneha Gupta Copyright (c) 2023 Sneha Gupta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/23 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Breast Cancer Detection using Image Segmentation https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/1 <p><em>Breast cancer is the most prevalent kind of malignancy in women, and diagnostic systems that apply artificial intelligence algorithms for breast imaging have shown positive results. Two methods that increase the precision of detecting breast tu-mors from mammography images are a multiclass support vector machine model and a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) using K-means clustering. To accurately diagnose breast tumors, the pectoral muscle (PM) border must still be dis-tinguished from the rest of the breast tissue. By merging the transfer learning model with a number of pre-trained CNN structures, this research offers an Ensemble-Net model for distinguishing the PM boundary from the rest breast region in mammograms. The segmentation procedure consists of 2 steps. According to the input, various regions of interest are formed in the initial phase and include the object.</em></p> Mohit Sethi, Dr. P. Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Mohit Sethi, Dr. P. Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/1 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Structure and Mutation Rate of SARS COVID-19 Virus https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/15 <p><em> The world economy, society, and health have all been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the importance of understanding the disease, its impact, and potential prevention measures. Our study analyzed the global spread and impact of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of understanding the disease to develop effective prevention measures. We analyzed epidemiological data and observed a significant increase in the number of cases and deaths globally. We identified common symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and we analyzed risk fac-tors such as age, underlying medical conditions, and immunosuppression. We also studied the transmission modes of COVID-19, including human-to-human transmission through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces. Our study highlights the importance of prevention measures such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and hand hygiene in controlling the spread of COVID-19. We analyzed the effectiveness of these measures, which were implemented globally to prevent the spread of the virus. Our observations indicate that these measures, when combined, have reduced the spread of the virus and prevented millions of cases and deaths globally. </em></p> Parth Nigam Copyright (c) 2023 Parth Nigam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pcc.a2zjournals.com/index.php/pcc/article/view/15 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000